Water Mondiaal is a programme launched by the Dutch government to cooperate actively with countries in low-lying delta areas, protecting them against floods and ensuring sufficient, clean water. Central to this is the notion that worldwide, the water cycle is already under great pressure from demographic developments, resulting in urbanisation, food shortages, the depletion of natural resources and subsidence. The changing climate is increasing this pressure. That pressure is concentrated on the densely populated, fertile delta areas. More than half the world’s population lives in these areas, the greater part in urban conurbations. The eco-systems here are under added pressure. Climate adaptation and attaining the Millennium Development Goals are major international and political challenges. The programme Water Mondiaal, which has only recently started, focuses on developing long-term water partnerships with five deltas: the Jakarta, the Mekong, the Ganges/ Brahmaputra, the Incomati and the Nile deltas. The programme is performed in close cooperation between public and private companies as well as NGO's.